Fronting of GOAT

Back upgliding vowels of Lilly R., b. 1907 [interviewed by William Labov in 1971], working class : /Tuw/ (two, do, etc.), /Kuw/ (goose, boot, etc.), /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.)

Back upgliding vowels of Lilly R., b. 1907 [interviewed by William Labov in 1971], working class : /Tuw/ (two, do, etc.), /Kuw/ (goose, boot, etc.), /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.)

 

Jim R., 49 (b. 1922) [interviewed by William Labov in 1971], working class: /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.)

Jim R., 49 (b. 1922) [interviewed by William Labov in 1971], working class: /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.)

 

Bobby, R., 69, upper-working class: /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.)

Bobby, R., 69, upper-working class: /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.)

 

Frances, E., 70, upper-working class: /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.)

Frances, E., 70, upper-working class: /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.)

 

Sound samples: Frances E., 70: most, both

 

Jane F., 30, lower-working class: /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.)

Jane F., 30, lower-working class: /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.)

 

 

Keith T., 21, lower-working class: /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.)

Keith T., 21, lower-working class: /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.)

 

 

Paul M., 22, upper-middle class: /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.)

Paul M., 22, upper-middle class: /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.)

 

Sound sample: Paul M., 22: open, those, opposed

 

The fronting of goat is socially stratified, with higher social classes showing more fronting of the vowel:

Expected F2 of /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.) by social class (F2 constant + F2 coefficient for each class)

Expected F2 of /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.) by social class (F2 constant + F2 coefficient for each class)

 

The fronting of goat is a change in progress only for the highest-status social group (middle and upper-middle class), with younger generations showing more fronting. For the other socio-economic levels, the vowel shows little change between generations:

Fronting of /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.) by age and social class: mean F2 values of /owC/ for middle class speakers: crosses, lower-middle-class speaker: circles, working class speakers: rectangles

Fronting of /owC/ (goat, soap, etc.) by age and social class: mean F2 values of /owC/ for middle class speakers: crosses, lower-middle-class speaker: circles, working class speakers: rectangles

 

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