Fronting of GOOSE before /L/ (as in school, pool, etc.)

Paul M., 22, upper-middle class: Goose vowel: highlighted tokens before /L/

Paul M., 22, upper-middle class: Goose vowel: highlighted tokens before /L/

 

Sound sample: Paul M., 22: school 

 

Keith T., 21, lower-working class: Goose vowel: highlighted tokens before /L/

Keith T., 21, lower-working class: Goose vowel: highlighted tokens before /L/

 

Sound sample: Keith T., 21: school

 

Jane F., 30, lower-working class: GOOSE vowel; highlighted tokens before /L/

Jane F., 30, lower-working class: GOOSE vowel; highlighted tokens before /L/

 

Sound sample: Jane F., 30: pool

 

Jim R., 49 (b. 1922) [interviewed by William Labov in 1971], working class: GOOSE vowel; highlighted tokens before /L/

Jim R., 49 (b. 1922) [interviewed by William Labov in 1971], working class: GOOSE vowel; highlighted tokens before /L/

 

Sound samples: Jim R. 49 (b. 1922): pools, school

 

Alan H., 76, lower working class: GOOSE vowel; highlighted tokens before /L/

Alan H., 76, lower working class: GOOSE vowel; highlighted tokens before /L/

 

Mary C., 63, lower-working class: GOOSE vowel; highlighted tokens before /L/

Mary C., 63, lower-working class: GOOSE vowel; highlighted tokens before /L/

 

Allison K. 53, lower working class: GOOSE vowel; highlighted tokens before /L/

Allison K. 53, lower working class: GOOSE vowel; highlighted tokens before /L/

 

Sound sample: Allison K. 53: cool

 

Edward J., 50, lower working class: GOOSE vowel; highlighted tokens before /L/

Edward J., 50, lower working class: GOOSE vowel; highlighted tokens before /L/

 

Madonna, 36, lower working class: GOOSE vowel; highlighted tokens before /L/

Madonna, 36, lower working class: GOOSE vowel; highlighted tokens before /L/

 

Sound sample: Madonna 36: fool

 

Expected F2 of /KuwL/ (school, pool, etc.) by social class (74 speakers); (F2 constant + F2 regression coefficient for each class)

Expected F2 of /KuwL/ (school, pool, etc.) by social class (74 speakers); (F2 constant + F2 regression coefficient for each class)

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